Early on as a Pastoral Associate in a multicultural, rural parish I often found myself bumping up against unwritten rules of interaction and I couldn’t figure out what was going wrong. For example, my default way of communicating about an upcoming activity was to post a blurb in the bulletin, make an announcement from the pulpit at the end of Mass and send out a mass text message via an automated service. For our European American parishioners this worked fine, but for the growing number of Hispanic parishioners it proved completely ineffective. We weren’t getting a good response. Many times, I assumed it was because no one was interested.
The problem is that when people of different cultures are interacting there are dynamics at play that may not be obvious on the surface. This is when the workshop and practical guide that was created by a task force of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) called Building Intercultural Competence for Ministers (BICM) can be extremely helpful. In Module 2, Seek an Understanding of Culture and How It Works, we learn, “Intercultural Competence is the capacity to communicate, relate and work across cultural boundaries” (BICM, p. 9). In order to cross these cultural boundaries better, we need new knowledge, skills and attitudes.
To provide new knowledge, Module 2 begins with an explanation of culture. Culture can be thought of like an iceberg—there are parts you can see, but most of it is below the surface. For example, we can see how a certain cultural group acts; we can hear their language and see their dress, their food, their dances and other cultural expressions. But the bulk of what makes up our culture, our way of seeing the world, is unseen. This can include our values, our beliefs, our assumptions, our perceptions and other invisible things that affect our behavior. When we interact with others, sometimes our cultural icebergs are crashing below the surface and we are unaware of the dynamics at play.
One way to analyze culture is by looking at the dimensions defined by the Hofstede Model. The five dimensions described in BICM can be thought of as spectrums with two extremes. A given culture will fall somewhere along the spectrum, closer to one end or the other. These spectrums are: 1) Collective vs. Individualistic, 2) Hierarchy vs. Equality, 3) Low vs. High Tolerance for Ambiguity, 4) Masculine vs. Feminine Gender Roles, and 5) Lived Experience vs. Abstract view of Time. Learning more about these dimensions can help us better navigate intercultural interactions in ministry.
By learning about the collective vs. individualistic dimension, I could see how our different cultural icebergs were affecting the way Hispanic parishioners experienced my communication. I come from New England of European American descent. The culture I was raised in taught me to communicate directly, quickly and concisely and emphasized independence. My culture falls on the individualistic side of the spectrum. However, the majority of those I was communicating with were recent immigrants from rural Mexico and Guatemala, most of whom belong to an indigenous culture group. Their culture taught them to communicate indirectly in order to emphasize respect, harmony and unity above independence. Their culture falls on the collective side of the spectrum. Understanding this cultural dimension helps me to communicate more effectively between cultures.
I came to understand over time that I needed to focus more on my relationships with our Hispanic parishioners as well as harness the power of working collectively. I also came to see that there were informal hierarchies that had formed in the different sub-groups in our parish. So, I began to foster better relationships with those who were key leaders and funnel information through them. Now, ten years later, when there is an upcoming event I make sure that I give those key leaders all the information in a personal way and encourage them to invite their group to participate. By using this collective method and informal line of communication, we have seen a much better response.
If you think that “cultural icebergs” may be affecting your ministry, check out Module 2 of USCCB’s Building Intercultural Competence for Ministers resource. It will surely help you like it did me!
Patti Gutiérrez has served in Hispanic Ministry for 13 years in the Diocese of Owensboro. This reflection was adapted with permission from Patti’s eBook 5 Cultural Differences You Need to Know to Succeed in Hispanic Ministry.